Phytosanitary principles of quarantine and plant protection and the application of phytosanitary measures in international trade. International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures
In accordance with relevant international agreements, Contracting Parties have the sovereign right to prescribe and adopt phytosanitary measures to protect plant health in their territories, as well as to determine the level of protection necessary for optimal plant health. With regard to phytosanitary measures, the IPPC states that: "With a view to preventing the introduction and/or spread of regulated pests into their territories, Contracting Parties shall have the sovereign right to regulate the importation of plants, plant products and other quarantine materials in accordance with relevant international agreements and to this end may:
(a) prescribe and adopt phytosanitary measures with regard to the importation of plants, plant products and other quarantined materials, including, for example, inspection, import ban or treatment;
(b) refuse to import or detain or require the treatment, destruction or removal from the territory of a Contracting Party of plants, plant products and other quarantine materials or goods containing them which do not comply with the phytosanitary measures established or adopted in accordance with subparagraph (a);
(c) prohibit or restrict the entry of regulated pests into their territory;
(d) prohibit or restrict the importation into their territory of biological control agents and other suspected beneficial organisms of phytosanitary importance to their territory." (Article VII.1) In exercising these powers and "with a view to minimizing interference in international trade ..." (Article VII.2) each Contracting Party undertakes to act in accordance with the provisions of Article VII.2 of the IPPC.